The degree of ST elevation seen in V is typically modest — note that only 0. The same patient, with posterior leads recorded:. The ECG changes extend out as far as V4, which may reflect superior-medial misplacement of the V4 electrode from its usual position. He has a passion for ECG interpretation and medical education. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
Posterior Myocardial Infarction • LITFL • ECG Library Diagnosis
Learn how your comment data is processed. Typical appearance of posterior infarction in V2. Posterior lead placement V7, V8, V9. Del Giudice's theory of sex differences in attachment are certainly provocative, but does the evidence support the theory? Early studies on infants and young children did not find any sex differences in avoidance or anxiety e.
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For instance, Schmitt et al. Schmitt et al.
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The differences were predicted by measures of ecological stress: in countries with higher mortality and fertility contexts favoring the fast life there were higher rates of an avoidant attachment style for both sexes and a reduction of sex differences in avoidance an effect driven by increased avoidance in women.
More recently, Del Guidice under review analyzed the combined results of samples 66, participants on romantic attachment from various countries.
Overall, males showed higher levels of an avoidance attachment style and lower levels of an anxiety attachment style than females. Sex differences in anxiety peaked in young adulthood, whereas an avoidant attachment style increased through the life course. Interestingly, the effects were stronger for studies based on community samples as opposed to studies based on college-student samples most composed of psychology students. This is important because it suggests that the nature of college samples may restrict the magnitude of sex differences in adult romantic attachment in the general population.
Virtually no sex differences were found in studies based on web surveys which Del Guidice attributes to self-selection bias in Web participants. Del Guidice also found that sex differences in romantic attachment differed depending on country. Del Guidice notes that the small differences found in North American may be due to a high proportion of college samples coming from that region. Consistent with this idea, when he looked just at North American community samples, the effect size.
The application of attachment theory to studying adult close relationships has generated an impressive amount of theories and empirical results. The common assumption of the field has been that sex differences do not exist, and indeed hundreds of studies do show that when looking at parent-infant attachment patterns, there are no sex differences e. The evolutionary predictions are specific, nuanced, and exciting, and show a lot of potential for us to come to a deeper understanding of the development of attachment across the lifespan.
Del Giudice's theory is still tentative, and requires further testing.
Nonetheless, his theory specifies the form that research should take. Therefore, future meta-analyses of studies of 6 to 14 year olds might fail to find sex differences in attachment if children aren't differentiated by their stage of sexual maturation. Del Giudice's model also suggests that prior research may have underestimated the magnitude of sex differences because it lumped together those living the fast life with those living the slower life.
As I already mentioned, Del Giudice's model specifically predicts that there will be no sex differences in slower life strategists who are securely attached. To really find the effect, you must zoom in on the insecurely attached folks living the fast life. Future research testing the theory should do this zooming in. To add in another consideration, Del Giudice's theory suggests that researchers would benefit at looking at the amount of stress and risk in the environment, since sex differences in attachment may also differ depending on the level of harshness and unpredictability in the environment.
The literature on sex differences in attachment is currently going through a very active and fruitful emergence of new data and debate. You can download all that here. I do think modern evolutionary theorizing holds a lot of promise. A major concern of the critics is whether the sex difference effects are large enough to be meaningful. This is an important criticism, which only future research will settle. As just mentioned, there are many reasons why the sex difference effects reported in the literature have been underestimated.
How does the fast life develop?
Future researchers investigating these issues would be advised to take Del Giudice's predictions into consideration in designing future studies. In order to test the novel predictions being made by evolutionary psychologists, researchers will have to integrate different levels of analysis through an interdisciplinary approach. Hopefully by doing so, we can come to a deeper understanding of the potentially different mental states, trade-offs, attachment styles, and development of men and women living the fast and slower life.
Part I: Evolution of the Fast Life. Auchus, R. Clinical Endocrinology, 60 , — Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32 , 22— Belsky, J.
Psychological Inquiry, 8 , 82— Attachment, mating and parenting: An evolutionary interpretation. Human Nature, 8 , Bjorklund Eds. NY: Guildford. The nature and nurture? Attachment and loss. Boyce, W. Biological sensitivity to context: I.
Development and Psychopathology , 17, — Brennan, K. Rholes Eds. New York: Guilford. Campbell, B. Adrenarche and the evolution of human life history. American Journal of Human biology, 18 , Cassidy, J. Chisholm, J. Del Giudice, M. Sex differences in romantic attachment: A meta-analysis. Corby, B. Attachment and adjustment in preadolescence.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University. The Oxford handbook of evolutionary family psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Pre-publication draft.